Alan Turing is a name you may have heard before, but do you know who he was and what he accomplished? Turing was a brilliant mathematician and a leading figure in computer science who played a crucial role in breaking Nazi Germany’s Enigma code during World War II. His groundbreaking work in computer science and artificial intelligence also laid the foundation for modern computing. This blog post will explore Turing’s life and career, and what made him so famous.

## Early Life and Education

Alan Mathison Turing was born on June 23, 1912, in London, England. Turing’s parents had high expectations for their son, who showed an early aptitude for mathematics. At age 16, he enrolled at King’s College, Cambridge, where he studied mathematics and earned a degree in 1934. After graduation, Turing was elected a fellow and began studying the foundations of mathematics.

## The Universal Turing Machine

In 1936, Turing published a paper called “On Computable Numbers” that would change the course of computer science. In the paper, Turing introduced the concept of a Universal Turing Machine, a theoretical machine that could simulate the logic of any mathematical algorithm. This machine laid the groundwork for the development of modern computers, which can run any program that can be expressed in code. To this day, Turing’s concept of the Universal Turing Machine is used as the basis for the formal definition of a computer.

## Codebreaking during World War II

In 1939, after the outbreak of World War II, Turing joined the top-secret Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park, where he played a crucial role in breaking Nazi Germany’s Enigma code. Using a combination of mathematical analysis and early computing machines known as “bombes,” Turing and his colleagues were able to decipher the encrypted messages that the Germans used to coordinate their military operations. The breaking of the Enigma code is widely believed to have shortened the war by as much as two years and saved thousands of lives.

## Turing Test and Artificial Intelligence

In 1950, Turing published a paper called “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” in which he proposed a test for artificial intelligence that came to be known as the Turing Test. The test consists of a human evaluator who judges whether responses to questions posed to both a human and a machine are indistinguishable or not. If the machine’s responses can fool the evaluator into believing that it is human, the machine is said to have passed the Turing Test and achieved a level of artificial intelligence.

## Persecution and Tragic Death

Despite his groundbreaking work in codebreaking and computer science, Turing was persecuted in his personal life for being gay. In 1952, Turing was arrested and convicted of homosexuality, which was then a crime in Britain. As a result of his conviction, Turing was forced to undergo chemical castration, and he lost his security clearance, which prevented him from continuing his work for the government.

Turing died in 1954 after eating an apple laced with cyanide in a tragic and mysterious death that may have been a suicide. It wasn’t until 2009 that then-British Prime Minister Gordon Brown apologized on behalf of the British government for the way Turing was treated.

## Legacy

Despite the tragedy of Turing’s life, his contributions to computer science, mathematics, and codebreaking are immeasurable. His groundbreaking work on the Universal Turing Machine laid the groundwork for modern computing, and his codebreaking efforts during World War II helped to change the course of history. The Turing Test remains an influential concept in artificial intelligence, and Turing’s legacy continues to inspire new generations of scientists and technologists.

## Conclusion

Alan Turing was a remarkable figure whose contributions to computer science and codebreaking are still felt today. From the Universal Turing Machine to the breaking of the Enigma code and the Turing Test, Turing’s work revolutionized computing and laid the groundwork for modern technology. His tragic personal life and persecution are a reminder of the injustices that society can inflict on those who are different, but his legacy continues to inspire and inform our understanding of the potential of artificial intelligence and computational thinking.

## FAQ

### What did Alan Turing do that was so important?

Alan Turing was a pioneering mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist whose work has had a profound impact on the modern world. He made several groundbreaking contributions to the fields of computer science and cryptography during his relatively short career in academia and government service.

Turing’s perhaps most important contribution to computer science was the invention of the Turing machine in 1936. A Turing machine is a simple, conceptual device that can simulate any conceivable computing algorithm by manipulating symbols on a tape according to specific rules. Turing’s machine was the first model of general-purpose computers and provided a foundation for the development of modern computers.

During World War II, Turing worked as a cryptanalyst for the British government and played a pivotal role in breaking Nazi Germany’s Enigma code. The Enigma code was a complex encryption method used by the German military to send secret messages that were considered unbreakable at the time. Turing led a team of cryptanalysts and helped develop a machine called the Bombe, which was used to decode encrypted messages. Their work was a major factor in the allies’ ability to turn the tide of the war.

However, despite his extraordinary contributions to the war effort, Turing faced persecution in the years following the war due to his homosexuality. Turing was convicted of indecency in 1952 and forced to undergo hormone therapy as a type of chemical castration. He tragically committed suicide two years later at the age of 41.

It wasn’t until decades later that Turing’s contributions to computer science and cryptography were widely recognized and appreciated. In 2009, then-Prime Minister Gordon Brown issued a formal apology on behalf of the UK government for the way in which Turing was treated, calling him “one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the modern era.”

Today, Turing’s work and legacy provide a foundation for ongoing research in computer science, artificial intelligence, cryptography, and many other fields. His life and tragic end are a reminder of the importance of recognizing and respecting diversity, and the crucial role that basic research can play in transforming the world.

### Why was Alan Turing assassinated?

To begin with, it is important to clarify that the official cause of Alan Turing’s death was suicide. However, considering the context in which he died, many believe that his death was, in fact, an assassination. Alan Turing was a brilliant mathematician, computer scientist, and codebreaker, widely recognized for his contributions to breaking the German Enigma code during World War II. Despite his invaluable contributions to the war effort, Turing faced persecution due to his homosexuality.

In 1952, Turing was charged with “homosexual acts” and found guilty of gross indecency, which was then considered a crime in the UK. He was given a choice between imprisonment and chemical castration, and he opted for the latter, hoping that he might be able to continue his research. Tragically, the hormone “treatment” he was then subjected to caused him serious side effects, including impotence, gynecomastia, and depression.

In this context, it is not hard to imagine why many people believe that Turing’s death was not a suicide but an assassination. The fact that he was persecuted, prosecuted and subjected to a degrading and aggressive form of “treatment” for his sexual orientation is unjustifiable, to say the least.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that Turing’s death was intended to be a warning to other homosexuals and anyone who supported them. This is because Turing was not only a famous scientist but also an openly gay man who challenged social conventions and the legal status quo. As such, his death was intended to act as a chilling message that this kind of behavior would not be tolerated.

While we may never know for sure the exact circumstances of Alan Turing’s death, it is clear that he was persecuted for his sexuality, which was criminalized by the UK government at the time. The fact that he was subjected to a degrading form of ‘treatment’ and ultimately committed suicide speaks to the grave injustice done to him and to many others in a similar position. Turing’s legacy, as a pioneering computer scientist and as a victim of state-sanctioned persecution, serves as a solemn reminder of the importance of human rights and the dire consequences of intolerance, bigotry, and discrimination.

### Who broke the Enigma code?

During World War II, the Enigma cipher machine was used by the Germans to encode and send their military messages with almost complete security. The Enigma machine had 159 trillion possible settings, making it almost impossible for the Allies to decode the messages without the key. However, a team of code-breakers at Bletchley Park, a secret facility in England, managed to crack the Enigma code and read German messages.

The work of breaking the Enigma code was led by a team of British cryptanalysts, including Alan Turing, Gordon Welchman, and others at Bletchley Park. Turing was a mathematician and computer scientist who developed a machine called the Bombe, which could quickly find the correct Enigma settings to decrypt the German messages.

The success of the code-breakers at Bletchley Park was a turning point in the war. It allowed the Allies to read intercepted German messages, giving them valuable intelligence on German military plans and movements. This intelligence helped to inform Allied military strategy and played a key role in several major operations, including the D-Day landings.

Despite the important contribution of Turing and the other code-breakers at Bletchley Park, their work was kept secret for many years after the war. It was not until the release of the Oscar-nominated film The Imitation Game in 2014 that Turing’s name and his contribution to breaking the Enigma code became more widely known. His work not only helped the Allies win the war but also paved the way for the development of modern computing.